Country: Italy


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Description: RSE carries out research into the field of electrical energy with special focus on national strategic projects funded through the Fund for Research into Electrical Systems. It is an entirely publicly owned joint stock company, part of the GSE Group, and is supervised by the Italian Ministry for Economic Development.
RSE develops applied research in the electricity/energy sector and provides the Italian system with the expertise and know-how it has acquired from its extensive experience and the long tradition of research in Italy. The activity covers the entire supply system with an application-oriented, experimental and system-based approach. RSE has a unique heritage of human resources , experience and innovation, essential to the continuity and revival of innovation in this important sector for the country.
The company carries out research projects of general interest, with an essentially applicational and experimental slant. This research aims at developing new initiatives to provide concrete solutions to the needs expressed by stakeholders, the market and the general public.
RSE’s research focuses on all aspects of the production system, central and local public administration, associations, groups of small and medium-sized enterprises, and consumer associations. RSE’s strategic goal is to promote and encourage the growth of tomorrow’s professionals, by supporting the training and education of young researchers according to their skills.
RSE is active in several international network and technology platforms as the European Industrial Initiatives on Electricity Grids (EEGI, GRID+ coordinator) and Wind Energy (EEWI), the Joint Programme of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) on Smart Grids (as JP Coordinator) and Storage, and Implementing Agreements of the International Energy Agency (ISGAN Chairman and ISGAN/SIRFN member). It is also active in the CEN-CENELEC-ETSI Smart Grid Coordination Group and in several IEC and CIGRE working groups. RSE has a noticeable experience in research and experiments on Smart Grids, DER characterization and integration in distribution networks. Among the others, RSE has coordinated the I3 project DERri, under the EC Research Infrastructures program.


Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility (DER-TF)
Description: RSE DER-TF (Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility) is a real low voltage microgrid that interconnects different generators, storage systems and loads to develop studies and experimentations on DERs and Smart Grid solutions.
The facility is in operation since 2002 and extends over an area of about 20,000 m2; it is interconnected to the MV Grid by means of a 800 kVA dedicated transformer (23 kV/400 V) and has an overall capacity of 350 kW (active power) and 300 kVAr (reactive power). 6 employees are constantly directly involved in the DER-TF management, operation and testing.
Different types of DER generators are connected as PV Fields, , Wind Generator, Diesel Generator and natural gas CHPs (Internal Combustion Engines). The facility has an overall storage capability of about 230 kWh based on different storage technologies as Lithium, Flow (Redox), High temperature Nickel-Sodium and Lead (VLRA) batteries interconnected to the grid with dedicated converters. Resistive, Inductive and Capacitive Loads (overall capability of about 90 kW, 70 kWAr inductive and 150 kWAr capacitive are connected to the grid in order to simulate different typologies of actual users loads).
The microgrid is configurable (locally or remotely) at the interconnection board in order to obtain different grid topologies: radial grids and also meshed configurations. There’s also the opportunity to extend feeders till one kilometre. The microgrid is able to operate grid connected or in islanded mode thanks to specific droop control algorithms implemented in some converters.
The interconnection board (main bars and all feeders) and all the DERs are provided with electrical measure equipment, set up to collect and analyse the experimental data derived from the field test.
For the future further installation of DER as well as an enhancement of the DC microgrid is planned.
Technical specifications (PDF)

Static Equipment

PV fields
Description: different PV fields with different inverters single phase, three phase, microinverter with an overall capacity of 36 kWp

CHP Internal Combustion engine #1
Description: Viessmann Vitobloc 200 EM-50/81 engine with synchronous generator (50 kWe, 80 kWth)

CHP Internal Combustion engine #2
Description: AISIN Toyota GECC60A2NR internal combustion engine (single phase, 6 kWe, 12 kWth)

Solar thermal plant
Description: The system (Euro Dish) is constituted by a parabolic dish (56m2, diameter 8.5 m) that concentrates the solar radiation in the receiver of a Stirling Engine (SOLO 161 , 10kWe) using helium as working gas.

Mini Wind Generator
Description: Mistral 3000, 3kWe, (4 m diameter rotor) connected to a PowerOne PVI3.6 single phase inverter

Diesel Generator
Description: The system, manufactured by Ausonia, is based on a 10 HP engine (Ruggerini) and an asynchronous generator (Leroy Somer) with a maximum capacity of 8kVA.

Redox Flow Battery
Description: The storage system, manufactured by Sumitomo-SEI , is based on a 45kW stack (Voltage 100-155 VDC, Current up to 500 A) and an electrolyte (Vanadium Salt) circuits based on two 4000l thanks that guarantee a total capacity of 90 kWh.

Lithium Ion Battery #1
Description: The system, with a nominal voltage of 432 V, is based on SAFT VL41M NCA cells and is characterised by a maximum continuative discharge power of 69 KW and a maximum cont. charge power of 19 KW; the rated capacity is 80 Ah with an overall energy of 36 kWh. The storage system includes battery BMS, 100 kVA bi-directional AC/DC converter operating on 4 quadrants, and local control system.

Lithium Ion Battery #2
Description: The system, manufactured by Loccioni, has a nominal voltage of 532.82 V and is based on Samsung SDI LMO 60Ah cells and is characterised by a maximum continuative power of 30 KW (both in charge and discharge; the rated capacity is 60 Ah with an overall energy of 32 kWh. The storage system includes battery BMS, 37 kVA bi-directional AC/DC converter operating on 4 quadrants, and local control system NaNiCl Batteries; the system is based on Fiamm Nickel-Sodium high temperature batteries each one characterised by a nominal Voltage of 557 V, a maximum power of 32 kW and a rated capacity of 32Ah (energy 18 kWh). Each batteries has a BMS and up to three batteries can be connected in parallel to a 150 kVA bi-directional AC/DC converter operating on 4 quadrants. The system is completed by a local control system for batteries and converter management.

Lead VRLA Batteries
Description: The system is based on 32 Fiamm Lead VRLA batteries (12FIT150 monolite) 12V, 150Ah connected in series for a nominal voltage of 384V, a maximum continuative power of 20 kW and a rated capacity of 150Ah (energy 50 kWh). The batteries are connected to a dedicated 22 kW bi-directional AC/DC converter operating at PF 0.8-1. The system can be directly connected to PV fields and loads in order to test off-grid operation.

Resistive/Inductive Controllable load
Description: A resistive/inductive remotely controllable load. Maximum power: 93 kW+69 kWAR. Load on single phases can be set independently in order to test not equilibrated configurations (3x31kW+3x23kVAr). Load control steps of 1 kW and 0.75 kVAr.

Low Voltage DC Microgrid
Description: Low Voltage DC Microgrid (380 V, 100 kWe) capable to operate in islanding mode ore interconnected to the AC grid. The DC microgrid operates at nominal voltage of 380VDC with bi-directional interface inverter (100 kWE), two Zebra batteries (each 30kWp, 16kWh), two super-capacitors banks (each 30 kWp, 8 seconds), a PV emulator (30kWE), a DC fully controllable resistive load (30kW) connected to DC BUS by DC/DC converters and a DC programmable load (30kW) directly connected to DC grid. The grid can operate in islanded mode or connected to the main AC grid (DER Test Facility).

Face to face converter
Description: Turbo Power Systems Ltd – ENT400 a bi-directional converter (200kWE) able to generate a second independent net at variable voltage and frequency to test components behaviour at different grid conditions. The supplied system consists of two back to back inverters. One inverter is connected to the grid and supplies power to a DC bus. The other inverter converts the DC bus power to a three phase variable frequency, variable voltage output. The power supplied by the voltage source is up to 200kW at a power factor of >0.8. The face to face converter can be used as a Grid Simulator in order to test components and grid sections at different voltage and frequency.

EV Charging station
Description: A multistandard fast charging station compatible with all CHAdeMO, CCS and Type 2 AC vehicles currently on the road is connected to the Smart Grid. This charger is the ideal choice to serve all these electric vehicles. Typical charging times range between 15 and 30 minutes.

“Domotic house”
Description: This test facility is a 60 m² building epresenting a common residential flat with living room, kitchen, bedroom, and bathroom. This facility makes possible to carry out several tests on different energy management strategies but also simulates the user presence thanks to an appropriate sub-system which operates each single domestic appliance as it may do a real family living in a house. The independent data acquisition & monitoring system allows to evaluate the actual results of the different energy strategies.

Power Analyzer
Description: Janitza UMG 511/512; energy and power analyzer installed in main feeders and in main components (total 15 instruments)

Electronic Energy Meter
Description: Teamware E2M, electronic multi-functional energy meter designed to measure and record the electric quantities on three-phase power lines; 8 systems installed in 8 PV fields

Mobile Equipment

Portable Electric Power Quality Analyzer
Description: Teamware Wally IP; Network analyzer for monitoring the quality of electric service. Approved according to ENEL DI 2201specifications. 5 Instruments.

CPV Test Facility
Description: RSE has set up a test facility located at Piacenza, in the North of Italy for performance of PV outdoor measurements. The testing facility is located in a place characterized by a global solar annual radiation of about 1400 kWh/m2 year. The test facility is also utilised in the frame of the large integrated Project APOLLON where round robin testing of CPV modules are performed to get comparable and reliable data.
Technical specifications (PDF)

Mobile Equipment

Description: Normal Incidence Pyrheliometer

Description: Solar Tracker

Description: Precision Spectral Pyrometer

StellarNet EPP2000-UVN-SR-50

Description: Spectrometer

Demand side Management Experimental House (DSM-EH)
Description: The RSE DSM-EH is a 60 m² building representing a common residential flat with living room, kitchen, bedroom and bathroom. The central element of DSM-EH is a Home Energy Manager & Gateway (GED), combining signal received from retailer (tariffs) and distributor (emergency) and user preferences regarding comfort and energy saving. In order to succeed with this management, several functionalities have been developed and tested. The main functionality implemented is the load and heating management, i.e. the possibility of switching off some appliances when particular circumstances occur or deciding whether it is better to use electric or gas devices for HVAC purposes.
Technical specifications (PDF)

Static Equipment

Description: Flow meter (free surface)

ADVANTECH ITALIA S.r.l. adam 5000E

Description: Aquisition equipment

I.M.E. Istrumenti Misure Elettriche S.p.A. D8W3

Description: Ammeter

LSI S.p.A. DMA 568.1

Description: Temperature and humidity meter


Description: Flow meter (under pressure)


Description: Heat pump


Description: Humidity regulator

I.M.E. Istrumenti Misure Elettriche S.p.A. nemo 31

Description: Power meter

Endress + Hauser Italia S.p.A. PROMAG 50P

Description: Flow meter (under pressure)

SIEMENS Building Technologies S.p.A Landis & Staef RWC62

Description: Temperature regulator


Description: Data Logger

I.M.E. Istrumenti Misure Elettriche S.p.A. TAS20B

Description: Measurement transformer

Mobile Equipment
LASTEM S.r.l. HD 388

Description: Thermo- hygrometer


Description: Thermometer

TESTO GmbH & Co. 451

Description: Environmental conditions recorder

TESTO GmbH & Co. 702

Description: Anemometer

DG Test Facility

Description: It consists of a LV microgrid, connected to the MV grid by means of a 800 kVA transformer. It is constituted by several generators with different technologies (renewable and conventional), controllable loads and storage systems. DER-TF can provide electricity to the main grid with a maximum power of 350 kW.
Technical specifications (PDF)

Static Equipment

Description: Meteorological tower

SIAC S.r.l.
Description: PV Inverter

Description: Battery


Description: Vacuum pump

Aisin Toyota Aisin Toyota

Description: 6 kW CHP gas internal combustion engine

LSI S.p.A. AXA-1

Description: Anemometer


Description: Boiler using pellets

Capacitive load

Description: 150 kVAR


Description: Aquisition equipment

CHP system

Description: Fuelled by biomass (10 kWE, 90 kWTH)

Communication system

Description: Developed with different technologies: LAN Ethernet, Wireless and Power Line. A supervision and control infrastructure has been also implemented, providing several services: Interface with distributed resources (equipped with their local control systems): the control system gets measurement and sends commands and set-points; Archive functions: data storage and retrieval, in order to permit further analysis; Standard TCP/IP interface towards optimisation applications.

Controllable three-phase resistive-inductive load

Description: 100 kW + 70 kVAR

Demand side Management Experimental Houses

Description: The RSE DSM-EH is a 60 m2 building representing a common residential flat where the central element of DSM-EH is a Home Energy Manager & gateway (GED), combining signal received from retailer (tariffs) and distributor (emergency) and user preferences regarding comfort and energy saving. In order to succeed with this management, several functions have been developed and tested. The main functionality implemented is represented by load and heating management, i.e. the possibility of switching off some appliances when particular circumstances occur or decide whether it is better to use electric or gas devices for HVAC purposes.


Description: Vacuum pump


Description: GPS Device

High temperature Zebra battery

Description: 64 kW, 30 minutes


Description: PV Inverter

Ammonir Gesellschaft fuer Messtechnik mbH METEO-32

Description: Data Logger

Dossena MV3QL/SI RS485

Description: Energy meter

R/L loads

Description: 150 kVAR

Various Renewable energy system

Description: Consists of a photovoltaic plant (10 kWP), a lead-acid storage system, a diesel engine coupled with an asynchronous generator (7 kVA), a simulated asynchronous wind generator (8 kVA).


Description: Internal-combustion generator

SAFT SAFT (454V/80Ah)

Description: Lithium-Ion Battery System

SMA Regelsysteme Gmbh SI 3300

Description: PV Inverter


Description: PV Inverter


Description: Data Logger

SMA Regelsysteme Gmbh SWR 1100E

Description: PV Inverter

SMA Regelsysteme Gmbh SWR 1500

Description: PV Inverter

SMA Regelsysteme Gmbh SWR 1700

Description: PV Inverter

SMA Regelsysteme Gmbh SWR 2500

Description: PV Inverter

SMA Regelsysteme Gmbh SWR 3000

Description: PV Inverter


Description: 100 kW CHP gas microturbine

THW Bertoldo & Co T60-TW250523

Description: Insulation transformer

Caleffi TERMICAL 7012

Description: Heat control device

Janitza UMG 511

Description: Energy Meter

Vanadium Redox Battery

Description: 42 kW, 2 hours

Mobile Equipment

Description: Phonometer


Description: Phone calibrator


Description: Standard oven


Description: Standard thermometer


Description: Power Quality Analyser

LASTEM S.r.l. CM 11

Description: Sun radiometer


Description: Tongs ammeter


Description: Standard capacitors


Description: Flow meter for aeriform substances


Description: Power Quality Analyser


Description: Power Quality Analyser


Description: Power Quality Analyser


Description: Power Quality Analyser

THIES ADOLF GmbH 7.1415.00.000

Description: Solarimeter


Description: Gas-chromatograph

Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility - Electric Vehicles research
Description: RSE activities in the field of Electric Vehicles have a multidisciplinaryapproach and aim at evaluating the effects of electric mobility on the whole power system, addressing regulatory aspects and relations withsmart cities and communities. Studies concern the analysis of different scenarios of electric mobility, including evaluating their influence on air quality at local and national level; development and application of methods to predict and monitor the impact on the distribution power grid: i. e. evaluation of hosting capacity and dynamic grid behaviour. Experiments deal with technological aspects: interoperability; control and communication issues of V2G services; ultrarapid recharge and aging of batteries and super capacitors.
PV Test Facility
Description: The PV laboratory is part of a low voltage test facility of distributed energy resources (RSE DER-TF) that can be used in conjunction with any PV system to simulate their behaviour in a dedicated grid (the test facility is already available as a RI in DERRI project, financed by EU). Peculiar aspects related to protections and to the energy quality can be analyzed using the RSE DER-TF.
Technical specifications (PDF)
In order to enhance the research infrastructure on Smart Grid, new laboratories and new components for the DER-TF were incorporated in RSE facilities. In particular:

IoT-Big Data laboratory

The IoT-Big Data laboratory was built on 2018-2019 and was designed for research on Big Data, Cloud Computing and Internet of Things (IoT), monitoring and control of Smart Grid, Smart Home and Sustainable Mobility. It integrates and processes data from different test facilities and distribution grids for testing innovative sensors with IoT communication technologies. The lab provides different ICT technologies and the main purpose is to facilitate collaborative work of researchers coming from different scientific fields (IT, electrical, electronic, physics and mathematics).

Improvement of the DER-TF

DER-TF (Distributed Energy Resource Test Facility) allows to test the integration, interconnection and performances of different smartgrid’s technologies and control strategies for microgrids. In 2019 the laboratory infrastructure was extended with two Vehicle-to-Grid charging station (15 kW each one, bidirectional) and a new High temperature Nickel-Sodium energy storage system (19 kW – 56 kWh). In addition, the Low Voltage DC Microgrid was completed through the installation of a new AC/DC converter (30 kVA) that allows the meshing of the AC grid and the power flow between two different feeders of the DER-TF.

Real Time Simulation Lab

The "Real Time Simulation" laboratory is based on a real-time digital simulator produced by OPAL-RT. There are 4 cores for real-time simulation of network models, automation devices and/or power electronic circuits.

The simulator is equipped with analog and digital I/Os for the interfacing of real systems (for example network protections, power circuit controllers etc.) to run "hardware in the loop" simulations.

Simulation/optimisation tools:

  • DIgSILENT Power Factory: grid simulation, voltage control
  • Matlab (MatPower and other tools): load flow analysis and control systems, energy management tools, state estimator
Standards compliance
  • CIM: data models and communication layer
  • IEEE 61850: DER representation, communication protocol definition and test (only for part of the test facility)
  • Modbus TCPIP: communication with instrumentations and components
  • CAN 2.0 part B and CANOpen: communication with battery BMS
Quality management/testing protocols

Laboratories are certified according to ISO9001:2008

Testing Services
  • Development, optimisation and testing of smart grid operation and control algorithms
  • On grid and off grid (islanded) AC microgrid testing
  • DC microgrd testing (including management and control algorithms)
  • Characterisation and testing of generators and storage systems
  • Innovative instrumentation and component testing
  • AC/DC converters testing grid connected and in island operation
  • Management of EV charching station: testing of charging control and management algorithms
  • Domotical house management: testing of management and control strategies

RSE offers a wide range of services in energy system integration and grid modernization, including the following technical areas:

  • characterization of PV modules, batteries and distribution grid components, like inverter, breaker, measurement equipment and controllers;
  • development and test of control algorithm for microgrid virtual energy storage system and of energy management system for electric vehicle in V2G operation;
  • development of advanced diagnostic tools for batteries and PV modules and measurement technique, such as ROCOF;
  • Cloud Computing: by providing infrastructure and developing cloud oriented infrastructures and applications;
  • Internet of Things: testing different communication technologies, transforming common sensors in connected sensors with data streaming in real time;
  • Big Data/Artificial Intelligence: big data analysis with machine learning algorithms (batch and real time on data streaming), web semantic technologies for Smart Grid using standard format (like IEC CIM) and testing different type of datastores (like time-series databases, graph databases, NoSQL, etc.).
Recent Publications

last updated: 29.10.2019

Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico S.p.A. (RSE)