Description: The Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA) is mainly called upon: to promote and carry out basic and applied research and innovation technology; to disseminate and transfer technologies, encouraging their use in productive and social sectors; to provide high-tech services, studies, tests and evaluations to both public and private bodies and enterprises. The activities on new Technologies for Energy, Renewable Sources and Energy Conservation are conducted by around 400 employees, 90% of which is made up of highly specialised and experienced researchers and technicians.
CPV Outdoor Solar cells, Modules and system Characterization
Description: The outdoor facilities are based on the following sun trackers all them with tracking based on Sun-sensor and Calculation mode: Phocus tracker area 32 m2 accuracy +/- 0.2 °; Atec Robotic Solar tracker 2x2 m2 accuracy +/- 0.02 °; EKO Sun Tracker STR-22 accuracy +/-0.01° Payload 15 Kg balanced. I-V acquisition is realized by electronic load and 6 ½ digital multimeters. Accuracy characterization of solar tracker and PV-C module position towards sun can be assured by a sun pointer probe developed and patented by Enea based on a PSD detector having an accuracy of 0.01 °.
Description: Phocus tracker area 32 m2 accuracy +/- 0.2 °
Description: Solar tracker 2x2 m² accuracy +/- 0.02 °
Description: Solar tracker accuracy +/-0.01 ° Payload 15 kg balanced
Description: All ENEA main computational resources are integrated in the ENEA-GRID infrastructure which provides to ENEA researchers and their partners an easy access to these multiplatform resources. The GRID infrastructure provides a full set of services for authentication, authorization, resource discovery and management. Users can access easily the GRID services by using a new and friendly homemade interface based on Freenx. Interconnection with other GRID infrastructures is assured by a Shared Proxy Approach for GRID Objects (SPAGO project) that offers a simple gateway to the interoperability with standard EGEE protocols. ENEA participates in EGEE initiative sharing computing resources and competences.
Description: The characterization activity carried out over photovoltaic modules aims at better understanding of their quality by measuring the main technical parameters affecting their performances, their operating conditions and reliability. The activities are focused on two main topics: i) module quality evaluation , ii) reliability and life time estimation.
Realization line for high efficiency C-PV and small area cSi Solar Cells
Description: The laboratory gives access to all characterization techniques on material and devices. Characterization tools: I-V dark light AM 1.5 G and under concentration up to 250 suns, external and internal quantum efficiency with electrical and/or optical biasing, minority carrier lifetime measurement of c-Si wafer by quasi-steady state and transient photoconductivity; spectrophotometer for direct and diffused cells and substrates reflectance; Spectral Elipsometry with variable incidence angle, fourpoint probe resistivity.
Description: Deposition of metals (Ti/pd/Ag/Al) and oxide and dielectric (SiOx, MgF2, ZnS, Ta2O5)
Girset Spinner Laser patter generator
Description: Realization of photolithographic mask
Karl Suss MA6 Mask-aligner for photolithographic process
Open tube quartz furnaces for diffusions, oxidations and annealing
Rapid thermal processing and Furnaces
Description: Annealing treatments (Tmax=1200 °C)
Description: RCA surface cleaning and chemical processing
Realization Line for high efficiency cost effective cSi Solar Cells
Description: The Research Infrastructure covers all the intermediate steps in cells production, from wafer to complete device. All the needed equipments are available for chemicals steps, diffusions and metal contact formation.
Description: ENEA experience, in the development of advanced technologies for “clean” energy production, includes research activities on planning and integration of renewable and distributed energy resources in distribution systems also looking at smart grid and microgrid scenario. In particular, ENEA main technical and scientific skills/competences on this subject include: analysis and study of problems concerning the RES utilization and integration in electricity grids in presence of distributed polygeneration; design and development of innovative solutions for photovoltaic applications; storage technologies analysis including performance testing; design of smart sensors network; energy efficiency evaluation/simulation for energy districts (i.e. integration of electrical and thermal network).
TCO sputter-MOCVD deposition and characterization
Description: The facilities are used to
develop and realize high transparency and high conductivity boron doped zinc oxide thin films deposited by Low Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition (LP-MOCVD)
optimise the properties uniformity on large area substrate (30 x 30 cm2) by ZnO by sputtering
develop plasma treatments on LP-CVD deposited ZnO thin films as front electrode of silicon based solar cells in order to optimise the ZnO/p-layer interface quality
develop thin film silicon based solar cells on LP-CVD zinc oxide
use a wider range of characterization methods (SEM, AFM, XRD, Hall effect) and models to analyze films, crystals, interfaces mechanical tests, functional properties, definition of fabrication process